Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Barrage of cyberattacks challenges campus culture

By Richard Pérez-Peña

America’s research universities, among the most open and robust centers of information exchange in the world, are increasingly coming under cyberattack, most of it thought to be from China, with millions of hacking attempts weekly. Campuses are being forced to tighten security, constrict their culture of openness and try to determine what has been stolen.

University officials concede that some of the hacking attempts have succeeded. But they have declined to reveal specifics, other than those involving the theft of personal data like Social Security numbers. They acknowledge that they often do not learn of break-ins until much later, if ever, and that even after discovering the breaches they may not be able to tell what was taken.

“The attacks are increasing exponentially, and so is the sophistication, and I think it’s outpaced our ability to respond,” said Rodney Petersen, who heads the cybersecurity program at Educause, a nonprofit alliance of schools and technology companies. “So everyone’s investing a lot more resources in detecting this, so we learn of even more incidents we wouldn’t have known about before.”

Tye Stallard, UC Davis information technology security manager, said the campus uses a multi-layered security approach that has benefited from a renowned computer security research program on campus, one that dates to the 1980s, and hosting a UC cybersecurity symposium.

The 10th such conference was held recently and remains relatively unique, even though, unlike, say, large corporations, academic institutions regularly share information about threats and collaborate to find solutions.

Just one of UCD’s security systems tallied 3.2 million attacks in the past week, Stallard said. In the past two years, UCD has suffered only one serious security breach. It affected about 10 people out of the 50,000 or more students, staff and faculty who use its network.

The UC system has some 2 million addresses on the Internet, Stallard said — “We’re a big target.”

Said Cheryl Washington, UCD’s new chief information security officer, “The attacks that we’re seeing today are very sophisticated and very persistent.”

“Because we work in higher education, we work in an open environment that creates things of real value: intellectual property,” said Washington, who arrived in Davis in June after serving in the same capacity for the UC Office of the President and, earlier, for the California State University system. “Our goal is to continue our mission, but be cognizant that we have valuable assets that need protection.”

Tracy Mitrano, the director of information technology policy at Cornell University, said detection was “probably our greatest area of concern, that the hackers’ ability to detect vulnerabilities and penetrate them without being detected has increased sharply.”

Like many of her counterparts, she said that while the largest number of attacks appeared to have originated in China, hackers have become adept at bouncing their work around the world.

Analysts can track where communications come from — a region, a service provider, sometimes even a user’s specific Internet address. But hackers often route their penetration attempts through multiple computers, even multiple countries, and the targeted organizations rarely go to the effort and expense — often fruitless — of trying to trace the origins.

American government officials, security experts and university and corporate officials nonetheless say that China is clearly the leading source of efforts to steal information, but attributing individual attacks to specific people, groups or places is rare.

An open style

The increased threat of hacking has forced many universities to rethink the basic structure of their computer networks and their open style, though officials say they are resisting the temptation to create a fortress with high digital walls.

“A university environment is very different from a corporation or a government agency, because of the kind of openness and free flow of information you’re trying to promote,” said David J. Shaw, the chief information security officer at Purdue University. “The researchers want to collaborate with others, inside and outside the university, and to share their discoveries.”

Some universities no longer allow their professors to take laptops to certain countries, and that should be a standard practice, said James A. Lewis, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a policy group in Washington.

“There are some countries, including China, where the minute you connect to a network, everything will be copied, or something will be planted on your computer in hopes that you’ll take that computer back home and connect to your home network, and then they’re in there,” he said. “Academics aren’t used to thinking that way.”

Bill Mellon of the University of Wisconsin said that when he set out to overhaul computer security recently, he was stunned by the sheer volume of hacking attempts.

“We get 90,000 to 100,000 attempts per day, from China alone, to penetrate our system,” said Mellon, the associate dean for research policy. “There are also a lot from Russia, and recently a lot from Vietnam, but it’s primarily China.”

Other universities report a similar number of attacks and say the figure is doubling every few years. What worries them most is the growing sophistication of the assault.

For corporations, cyberattacks have become a major concern, as they find evidence of persistent hacking by well-organized groups around the world — often suspected of being state-sponsored — that are looking to steal information that has commercial, political or national security value. The New York Times disclosed in January that hackers with possible links to the Chinese military had penetrated its computer systems, apparently looking for the sources of material embarrassing to China’s leaders.

This kind of industrial espionage has become a sticking point in United States-China relations, with the Obama administration complaining of organized cybertheft of trade secrets, and Chinese officials pointing to revelations of American spying.

Intellectual property

Like major corporations, universities develop intellectual property that can turn into valuable products like prescription drugs or computer chips. But university systems are harder to secure, with thousands of students and staff members logging in with their own computers.

Shaw, of Purdue, said he and many of his counterparts had accepted that the external shells of their systems must remain somewhat porous. The most sensitive data can be housed in the equivalent of smaller vaults that are harder to access and harder to move within, use data encryption, and sometimes are not even connected to the larger campus network, particularly when the work involves dangerous pathogens or research that could turn into weapons systems.

“It’s sort of the opposite of the corporate structure,” which is often tougher to enter but easier to navigate, said Paul Rivers, manager of system and network security at the UC Berkeley. “We treat the overall Berkeley network as just as hostile as the Internet outside.”

Berkeley’s cybersecurity budget, already in the millions of dollars, has doubled since last year, responding to what Larry Conrad, the associate vice chancellor and chief information officer, said were “millions of attempted break-ins every single week.”

Shaw, who arrived at Purdue last year, said, “I’ve had no resistance to any increased investment in security that I’ve advocated so far.”  Mellon, at Wisconsin, said his university is spending more than $1 million to upgrade computer security in just one program, which works with infectious diseases.

Along with increased spending has come an array of policy changes, often after consultation with the FBI. Every research university contacted said it was in frequent contact with the bureau, which has programs specifically to advise universities on safeguarding data. The FBI did not respond to requests to discuss those efforts.

Not all of the potential threats are digital. In April, a researcher from China who was working at the University of Wisconsin’s medical school was arrested and charged with trying to steal a cancer-fighting compound and related data.

New to academia

Last year, Mellon said, Wisconsin began telling faculty members not to take their laptops and cell phones abroad, for fear of hacking. Most universities have not gone that far, but many say they have become more vigilant about urging professors to follow federal rules that prohibit taking some kinds of sensitive data out of the country, or have imposed their own restrictions, tighter than the government’s. Still others require that employees returning from abroad have their computers scrubbed by professionals.

That kind of precaution has been standard for some corporations and government agencies for a few years, but it is newer to academia.

Information officers say they have also learned the hard way that when a software publisher like Oracle or Microsoft announces that it has discovered a security vulnerability and has developed a “patch” to correct it, systems need to apply the patch right away. As soon as such a hole is disclosed, hacker groups begin designing programs to take advantage of it, hoping to release new attacks before people and organizations get around to installing the patch.

“The time between when a vulnerability is announced and when we see attempts to exploit it has become extremely small,” said Conrad, of Berkeley. “It’s days. Sometimes hours.”

— Enterprise staff writer Cory Golden contributed to this report.



New York Times News Service

  • Recent Posts

  • Enter your email address to subscribe to this newspaper and receive notifications of new articles by email.

  • .


    Sanity phase begins in Daniel Marsh trial

    By Lauren Keene | From Page: A1

    Council looks at granny-flat revision

    By Dave Ryan | From Page: A1

    Man on a mission: transform Davis

    By Dave Ryan | From Page: A1 | Gallery

    Poppenga outlines ambitious agenda

    By Jeff Hudson | From Page: A1 | Gallery

    Cool Davis Festival is très chill

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A1 | Gallery

    Standing In: Is the therapy for them, or me?

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A2

    California exhausts initial firefighting budget

    By The Associated Press | From Page: A2

    Brown allows new local development financing tools

    By The Associated Press | From Page: A2

    Find the perfect club or organization to join

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C2 | Gallery

    California becomes first state to ban plastic bags

    By The Associated Press | From Page: A2

    Forum examines Props. 1 and 2 on November ballot

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A3

    Assembly candidates will be at Woodland forum

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A4

    Pets of the week

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A4 | Gallery

    California approves landmark ‘yes means yes’ law

    By The Associated Press | From Page: A4

    Try out basic yoga on Thursday

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A4

    DCC welcomes students with free lunch

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A4

    Gibson House hosts plant sale and garden event

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A4

    Register to vote by Oct. 20

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A4

    Covell Gardens breakfast benefits Komen Foundation

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A5

    Put your hoes down and celebrate the harvest

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A5 | Gallery

    Panelists discuss raising children with special needs

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A5

    DCC hosts fair-trade gift sale on Oct. 11

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A5

    Number of wheels: How many bicycles do you have in your household?

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C5 | Gallery

    Emerson gives away old textbooks

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A5

    Downtown history tour planned in October

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A5

    Fraud Awareness Fair set Oct. 15 in West Sac

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A5

    UCD, University College Dublin will cooperate on food, health

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A5

    Accessibility technology on exhibit at fair

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A5

    Woodland PD seeks volunteers for ViP program

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A7

    DMTC makes musical theater accessible to everyone

    By Bev Sykes | From Page: C9 | Gallery

    Take home a wreath from Davis Flower Arrangers’ meeting

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A10

    Snapshot: A night out with the neighbors

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C10

    Davis school names reflect interesting history

    By Jeff Hudson | From Page: C12

    Snapshot: Plenty of places to park it

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C14

    Snapshot: Dive into Davis fun

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C15

    Snapshot: Kick garbage to the curb

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C16

    Snapshot: Sounds like a party

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: C17



    It takes two to lambada

    By Creators Syndicate | From Page: B5

    He seems happy at home

    By Creators Syndicate | From Page: B5

    The great bedtime conspiracy

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A6

    They’re best-prepared to lead

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A6

    Vibrant and hard-working

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A6

    Archer has the right stuff

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A6

    Tom Meyer cartoon

    By Debbie Davis | From Page: A6

    Get on your bikes to meet Davis’ greenhouse gas goals

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A6

    Marsh case shows need for ‘Maupin’s Law’

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A6



    Only 15 months out of UCD, Runas off to LPGA Tour

    By Bruce Gallaudet | From Page: B1 | Gallery

    Davis golfers get teaching moments in forfeit win

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: B1

    ‘Playoff game’ or missed chance? Either way the Aggies move on

    By Bruce Gallaudet | From Page: B1 | Gallery

    Devils move atop league standings with win

    By Evan Ream | From Page: B1 | Gallery

    Two Junior Blue Devil squads emerge victorious

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: B2





    Woodland artist hosts event at her new studio

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A9

    I-House film series continues with ‘Monsieur Lazhar’

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A9

    ‘Art Farm’ exhibition will open in Woodland

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A9

    Pleasant Valley Boys cool down Picnic in the Park

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A9 | Gallery

    Acclaimed guitarist Peppino D’Agostino to play The Palms

    By Landon Christensen | From Page: A9





    Danelle Evelyn Watson

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A4

    Michael Allen Hanks Baxter

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A4

    Anne Elizabeth Elbrecht

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A4



    Comics: Tuesday, September 30, 2014 (set 1)

    By Creator | From Page: B5

    Comics: Tuesday, September 30, 2014 (set 2)

    By Creator | From Page: B7