Friday, January 30, 2015
YOLO COUNTY NEWS
99 CENTS

Some battles being won in war on poverty, economists say

ann huff stevensW

Ann Huff Stevens. Courtesy photo

By
From page A1 | January 10, 2014 |

When President Lyndon Johnson declared an “unconditional war on poverty” in his State of the Union address, 50 years ago this week, the official poverty rate was 19 percent.

Last year, it stood at 15 percent. And so the war goes on.

What that official measure of poverty fails to capture are other, harder-to-quantify successes, according to Ann Huff Stevens, economics professor and director of the UC Davis Center for Poverty Research.

“Because we now provide a substantial number of low-income families with Medicaid, with health insurance for their children, with food stamp nutrition support, with school lunch, we see improvement in the health of the poor people,” Stevens said.

“Those victories are not as easy to show on a graph and they don’t show up on official statistics.”

On Thursday and today, the center hosted a conference looking more deeply at where the country stands in Johnson’s war, 50 years on.

About 50 million Americans live below the official poverty line, which in 2012 was set at $23,492 for a family of four.

Income inequality, which President Barack Obama has called “the defining challenge of our time,” has grown to the point where a family in the top 1 percent has a net worth a record 288 times greater than the average family.

But are the poor relatively better off than at the time of Johnson’s speech and does that speak to the merits of programs like food stamps?

“One thing that I think there is consensus at this conference about, because it is a group of people who have studied pretty carefully many of the safety-net programs, is that many of these safety-net programs are actually quite effective,” Stevens said. “But many of them have been cut, so one thing we should be doing is to restore or maintain these programs that we do have.”

Economists say that the official poverty rate does not paint a full enough picture. It does not include noncash benefits, like public housing, Medicaid and food stamps or tax credits, like the earned income tax credit and child credit.

When gauged by consumption, for instance — what people actually have in terms of food and housing — the poverty rate dropped 26.4 percent between 1960 and 2010, with 8.5 percent of that decline since 1980. That’s according to paper offered at the conference by economists Bruce Meyer of the University of Chicago and James Sullivan of the University of Notre Dame.

They credit that improvement to cuts in tax rates at the bottom in the 1960s and expanded tax credits, deductions and exemptions beginning in the 1980s.

Increased Social Security benefits, especially in the late 1960s and 1970s, and increased educational attainment are among the other factors that also have played a role, Meyer and Sullivan write.

Said Stevens, “If you measure poverty by looking at data on consumption … you get a more optimistic picture. Those numbers actually suggest that people at the bottom are substantially better off today than back when the war on poverty started.”

In 2011, the earned income tax credit kept 6 million people above the poverty line. Food stamps did so for 4 million people.

Food stamps may do more than that, however.

Hilary Hoynes, a UC Berkeley economist affiliated with the UCD research center, on Thursday presented a study that found that those with exposure to food stamps up to age 5 have a reduced incidence of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease in adulthood.

“The differences are significant,” she said. “We find that having exposure through age 5 versus not having food stamps at all leads to more than a 10 percentage-point difference in the risk of obesity.”

Hoynes and her co-authors, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach of Northwestern University and Douglas Almond of Columbia University, looked at about 3,000 people born between 1956 and 1981 whose parents had less than a high school education.

Because the food stamp program (now officially called the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) was rolled out between 1961 and 1975, it allowed the researchers to compare the long-term health of their subjects to the varied availability of the assistance.

Previous research has shown that exposure to better nutrition in early life reduces later-life chronic conditions. Scientists believe that’s because the metabolic system develops in response to available nutrients.

“To date, there has not been much interest in whether these sort of general assistance programs could lead to effects on health,” Hoynes said. “No one has really thought that this would matter.

“The work has been much more about to what extent does it change what people eat and to what extent does it remove people from poverty, which is really important, and people also look at to what extent does providing this assistance cause any reductions in work effort. That’s where most of the debate has been …

“We still need to think of the bigger picture of the costs versus the benefits of this program, but what we’re looking at no one has really looked at before.”

Hoynes said it is important to note that those she studied remained relatively young, so only time will tell if the differences hold over their full lifetimes.

The study also found a positive, though not statistically significant, association between early exposure to food stamps and adult income for women.

Online: http://poverty.ucdavis.edu

— Reach Cory Golden at [email protected] or 530-747-8046. Follow him on Twitter at @cory_golden

Comments

comments

Cory Golden

Cory Golden

The Enterprise's higher-education and congressional reporter. http://about.me/cory_golden
  • Recent Posts

  • Enter your email address to subscribe to this newspaper and receive notifications of new articles by email.

  • .

    News

    Suspected Ebola patient being treated at UCD Med Center

    By San Francisco Chronicle | From Page: A1

     
    Town hall focuses on Coordinated Care Initiative

    By Anne Ternus-Bellamy | From Page: A1

    Schools give parents tools to help kids thrive

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A1 | Gallery

     
    Need a new best friend?

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A2 | Gallery

     
    Stanford University to get $50 million to produce vaccines

    By The Associated Press | From Page: A2

    Two more cases of measles in Northern California in children

    By The Associated Press | From Page: A2

     
    Dartmouth bans hard liquor

    By New York Times News Service | From Page: A2

     
    Storyteller relies on nature as his subject on Saturday

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A3

    Still time to purchase tickets for DHS Cabaret

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A3

     
    All voices welcome at sing-along Wednesday

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A3

    Great Chefs Program will feature Mulvaney

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A3

     
    Free tax preparation service begins Monday

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A3

    Walkers head out three times weekly

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A3Comments are off for this post

     
    No bare bottoms, thanks to CommuniCare’s Diaper Drive

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A3 | Gallery

     
    February science fun set at Explorit

    By Lisa Justice | From Page: A6 | Gallery

    Take a photo tour of Cuba at Flyway Nights talk

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A6 | Gallery

     
    See wigeons, curlews and meadowlarks at city wetlands

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A8 | Gallery

    .

    Forum

    Time for bed … with Grandma

    By Creators Syndicate | From Page: B5

     
    Olive expert joins St. James event

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A10

    We’re grateful for bingo proceeds

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A10

     
    Tom Meyer cartoon

    By Debbie Davis | From Page: A10

     
    A ‘new deal’ for the WPA building

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A10

    Protect root zone to save trees

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A10

     
    Weigh quality of life, density

    By Letters to the Editor | From Page: A10

    .

    Sports

    UCD has another tough football schedule in 2015

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: B1

     
    Gould’s influence felt mightily in recent Super Bowls

    By Bruce Gallaudet | From Page: B1

    Mustangs hold off UCD women

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: B1 | Gallery

     
    UCD men set new school D-I era win record

    By Bruce Gallaudet | From Page: B1 | Gallery

    Sharks double up Ducks

    By The Associated Press | From Page: B2 | Gallery

     
    Sports briefs: Watney, Woods start slow at TPC Scottsdale

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: B2

    Recall that first Aggie TV game, national title?

    By Bruce Gallaudet | From Page: B8 | Gallery

     
    .

    Features

    .

    Arts

    ‘Song of the Sea’ is an enchanting fable

    By Derrick Bang | From Page: A11 | Gallery

     
    ‘Artist’s Connection’ launches on DCTV

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A11

     
    Gross’ paintings highlight a slice of Northern California

    By Enterprise staff | From Page: A12 | Gallery

    February show at YoloArts’ Gallery 625 is ‘Food for Thought’

    By Special to The Enterprise | From Page: A12 | Gallery

     
    .

    Business

    .

    Obituaries

    .

    Comics

    Comics: Friday, January 30, 2015

    By Creator | From Page: A9